HPV vaccines: how many doses are needed for protection?

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HPV virus-like particle vaccines are highly immunogenic, well tolerated and are in the national immunization programs in more than 62 countries. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with first infection occurring just after the onset of sexual activity. The routine cohort for immunization in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9–15 years of age with or without catch-up for older adolescents and young women. In countries with vaccine coverage exceeding 50%, reductions in vaccine type HPV geno-prevalence and disease are being shown. The mechanism of protection is assumed to be via neutralizing antibody.

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