Toward a universal influenza vaccine: a retrospective

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The influenza virus, due to its segmented nature and intrinsically high mutation rate, is prone to frequent antigenic drifts and antigenic shifts, leading to annual episodes, as well as occasional pandemic outbreaks. Influenza A viruses are broadly categorized into subtypes according to their surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), while the 18 different HA subtypes are further classified into two distinct phylogenetic groups [1]. Vaccination has been considered the most effective way to control the influenza virus, but the seasonal influenza vaccines currently available only provide strain-specific protection.

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