The skip-and-resurgence of Japanese encephalitis: new virus strain invasion in Southeast Asia

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What is Japanese encephalitis virus?
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus, persisting mainly in pigs, Ardeid birds and Culex mosquitoes. JEV is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, almost all human infections are due to mosquito bites by insects that have bitten JEV-infected reservoirs (e.g., pigs and birds) recently.

Most infections occur asymptomatically or with mild symptoms such as fever and headache. More severe infection is characterized by rapid onset of headache, high fever, neck stiffness, impaired mental state, coma, tremors, convulsions (especially in children) and paralysis [1]. The annual total confirmed human cases has decreased substantially from 12,594 cases to 3429 cases between 2006 and 2012, and then resurged to 5399 in 2016 throughout the world.

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